Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology Frankfurt, Germany.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Joachim Wink

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany

Keynote: Biology of Myxobacteria – An Underestimated Group of Antibiotic Producing Bacteria

Time : 09:30-10:00

Conference Series Applied Microbiology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Joachim Wink photo
Biography:

Joachim Wink has completed his PhD in 1985 from Frankfurt University. He then went to the pharmaceutical industry and started his career at the Hoechst AG where he was responsible for the strain collection and specialized in the cultivation and taxonomic characterization of Actinobacteria and Myxobacteria. In 2012 he went to the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig where he founded the working group of the strain collection with its focus on Myxobacteria. He has published more than 40 papers on secondary metabolites and the taxonomy of the producing microorganisms in reputed journals.

Abstract:

The Myxobacteria with the order Myxococcales (TCHAN, POCHON and PRÉVOT 1948) belong to the Gram negative Proteobacteria and have first been described in detail by Thaxter in 1892 in the Botanical Gazette. Most known Myxobacteria, occur in soil and frequently develop on decomposing plant material, the bark of living trees or animal dung. Both in nature and in the laboratory their presence may be detected through the appearance of fruiting bodies. Since the introduction of Epotilon as anticancer therapeutic on the market, the Myxobacteria have their place in the group of industrial important bacteria. The biology of Myxobacteria is mainly characterized by two features that are the gliding on surfaces without any locomotion organelles and the formation of fruiting bodies. Myxobacteria also have a high GC contend and very huge genomes with a size of about 10 Mb which correlates with their ability to produce many different secondary metabolites. Until today the taxonomy of the Myxobacteria is basing on the morphological features together with the 16S rRNA sequence, in addition we have established a number of chemotaxonomic and molecular biological markers which can be used in myxobacterial taxonomy. A short overview on the history of Myxobacteria, the fruiting body formation, its taxonomic classification and additional methods for characterization is given in this talk.

Keynote Forum

Olga Genilloud

Fundacion Medina, Spain

Keynote: Exploiting bacterial diversity for the discovery of novel natural products

Time : 10:00-10:30

Conference Series Applied Microbiology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Olga Genilloud photo
Biography:

Olga Genilloud holds a PhD in Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and has extended research experiencernin microbial natural products in the academic, clinical and big pharma R&D environments. Currently, she is the Scientifi c Director of the non-profi t researchrnorganization Fundacion MEDINA established from the former MSD-Spain R&D programs, she leads the discovery programs and the international collaborationsrnwith academic centers, large pharma and biotechnology companies. As recognized leader in her field, she has an extended list of more than 100 publications inrninternational peer-review journals and book chapters, and 17 international patents.

Abstract:

MEDINA is a non-profi t research center focused on the discovery of novel drug candidates from microbial natural productsrnand one of the richest and most diverse microbial collections currently in expansion. Th is microbial collection harbors morernthan 116.000 strains from a wide diversity of environments and is at the origin of our collaborative discovery research programs.rnOne of our objectives is to enrich these collections with new and diverse strains from untapped environments, and to continue tornexploit the existing microbial collection through culture-based approaches in order to succeed in maximizing the chemical diversityrnof our libraries. Our research in microbial natural products is focused on the isolation and identifi cation of novel microbial speciesrnwith the potential to produce novel compounds with biological activity to be developed as potential new leads to respond to unmetrnmedical needs. Despite the eff orts to diversify the microbial sources, it is well known that only a small fraction of microbial speciesrnhave been investigated, and that a large diversity of microbial sources remains largely underexplored, opening new avenues for thernisolation of new strains previously not cultivated. MEDINA is also exploring novel approaches to mine the so-called microbial darkrnmatter and is isolating and domesticating in laboratory culture conditions new taxa previously reported only from metagenomicrnlibraries. A selection of success cases that support the approaches developed in our center will be discussed.

Keynote Forum

Patrick Fickers

Univerity of Liège, Belgium

Keynote: Antibiotic from Bacillus, new compounds to solve an old problem

Time : 10:30-11:00

Conference Series Applied Microbiology-2015 International Conference Keynote Speaker Patrick Fickers photo
Biography:

Patrick Fickers obtained a PhD from University of Liège (Belgium) in 2004. He worked as Post-doc at Polytech’Lille (France) and as a FNRS fellow at the Centre of Protein Engineering (Liege, Belgium). Between 2009 and 2014, he was an Associated Professor at Unversité libre de Bruxelles and the Head of the Biotechnology and Bioprocess Unit. In January 2015, he joined as a Professor the Microbial Processes and Interactions research unit (MiPI) at Gembloux AgroBiotech (Univerity of Liège). He has published 37 research papers in peer-reviewed journals and six book chapters. His researches focus on the development of yeast and bacterial strains by metabolic engineering and on process development in bioreactor for the production of valuable compounds.

Abstract:

The worldwide emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens is a serious medical concern nowadays. The need to discover new bioactive molecules active against these bacteria is crucial and is one of the main fields of research for modern microbiologists. Most natural antibiotics used in medicine are biosynthesized by Gram-positive bacteria. Recent advances in genomics and genome sequencing have shown that the potential of these organisms to produce molecules of pharmacological interest has been greatly underestimated. Full genome sequencing has revealed biosynthesis pathways for peptides manufactured by the conventional ribosomal assembly and NRPS metabolites (nonribosomal peptide synthetase). Here, we will report on the NRPS metabolite Mycosubtilin and the ribosomally synthesized peptide Amylolysin, both produced by Bacillus sp.

Break: @ Foyer Area, 11:00-11:15
  • Track 1: Microbial Characterization: Identifying Novel Strains
    Track 5: Protein Engineering and Enzymology
    Track 9: Cost Effective Tools: Systems Biology & Bioinformatics
    Track 12: Microbial Interactions: Biofilm Formation
    Track 15: Art of Antibacterial Warfare: Quorum Sensing
Location: Flemings Conference Hotel
Speaker

Chair

Joachim Wink

Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany

Speaker

Co-Chair

Olga Genilloud

Fundación MEDINA, Spain

Session Introduction

Chit Laa POH

Sunway University, Malaysia

Title: Enterovirus 71 : Candidates for Vaccines and Antivirals

Time : 11:15-11:35

Speaker
Biography:

Chit Laa Poh completed her PhD from Monash University, Australia in 1980 and returned to Malaysia and Singapore to pursue her academic career. Initially trained as an environmental bacteriologist, she started to focus on Medical Virology research since 1999 and worked on the development of rapid molecular diagnostics, novel antivirals and vaccines against Enterovirus 71 which can cause serious hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). She has achieved a Google H-index of 33. She is on the editorial board of Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (Elsevier) and Austin Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. She has graduated 12 PhDs, 8 MScs and many BSc (Hons) students. She has published 87 papers in reputed journals and co-authored 3 book chapters in books published by ASM and Humana Press. She has served as Ad Hoc reviewers for papers submitted to PLoSOne. After working for 25 years in the National University of Singapore (NUS), she is currently engaged as a Distinguished Professor by Sunway University. In her current role, she hopes to attract good graduate students and provide them with excellent supervision in research. She is often invited by reputable journals to contribute review papers and original research papers.

Abstract:

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is commonly caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71(EV71) and Coxsackievirus CVA5, CVA8 and CVA 16. Coxsackieviruses generally cause mild symptoms such as high fever, rashes and vesicles in the hand, foot and mouth but EV71 can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem encephalitis, leading to cardiopulmonary failure and death. China experienced over 2.7 million cases of HFMD infections with 384 deaths in 2014. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV71 highlights the urgency of developing preventative and treatment agents against EV71 to prevent further fatalities. The inactivated vaccine (IV) is well advanced in development and has good clinical trial data to support the use of the vaccine. It is ready for production in China but it remains to be investigated if the immunogenicity of the IV is able to confer protection against all EV71 sub-genotypes. Although there is data to support broad protection for some genotypes/sub-genotypes at varying efficacies, more studies need to be carried out on whether the neutralizing levels induced by IV are sufficient to protect against serious HFMD infections. New developments of experimental vaccines and antivirals are presented.

Speaker
Biography:

Bruca Maria Isabel has completed her PhD from Buenos Aires a University and postdoctoral studies from Abierta Interamericana University School of Medicineand from Catholic University. She is the coordinator in investigation group of Abierta Interamericana University, and Professor in Buenos Aires University and Abierta Interamericana University .She has published more than 14 papers in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the prevalence of yeast species in the evolution of patients with breast cancer treated with antiestrogen therapy.

Materials & Methods: 30 postmenopausal patients who attended the Southern OMI Medical Center were included. The following groups were formed: Group 1 patients diagnosed with Breast Ca. treated with anti estrogens for less than one year Group 2 patients diagnosed with Breast Ca. treated with anti estrogen for 1-2 years Group 3 patients diagnosed with Breast Ca. treated with anti estrogen for 2-5 years Group 4 patients diagnosed with Breast Ca., who have completed their treatment with anti estrogen. Patients were surveyed about their symptoms, periodontal indices and then oral mucosa sample were taken. Conventional Microbiological examinations for Candida species as well as the molecular biology study data were performed.

Results: Microbiological findings showed that a greater variety of species of Candida were isolated from patients who used the drug during the first two years (Group 1 and 2). Only 2 species were isolated in patients who used the drug more than two years (Group 3) and those who have completed treatment (Group 4).

Conclusion: The length of intake of anti estrogens influences the growth and species of Candida, having a cumulative beneficial effect on the population studied.

Speaker
Biography:

Mostafa El-gaffary has completed his MVSc 2010 from Cairo University and his PHD from Cairo University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. He is lecturer and director of Clinical pathology Lab in his Faculty; he was Trainer for postgraduate student on Biomedical application of Nanotechnology, Molecular biology and Immunology at Biotechnology center for research located in his Faculty2007 – 2014.

Abstract:

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of even-toed ungulates; it is endemic in cattle herds in most parts of the world. It belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus. Until now there is no standard lab host for BVDV although some reports mentioned that rabbit could propagate certain strains of BVDV upon intravenous exposure, Lacking of lab host is an obstacle facing most of researcher. Our work aimed to evaluation of rabbits as lab host for BVDV using NADL BVDV strain in white New Zealand rabbits. Successful multiple passages of BVDV in rabbits using mixture of splenic homogenate and buffy coat were achieved followed by re-isolation and molecular identification of the virus from infected animals, later the re-isolated virus have been intravenously administrated in rabbits, animals developed signs of depression and off-food for 3 days followed by diarrhea in some of them also transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia and thrombocytopenia were observed. Post-mortem and histo-pathological examination showed typical picture of Pestiviruses transient infection. Demonstration of the viral antigen have been done on splenic tissues using immunohistochemistry, moreover virus propagation have been followed up and confirmed over 10 days using quantitative Real-Time PCR technique on tissue samples on the other hand saliva and feces were virus negative. From our work we discovered that adapted NADL BVDV strain have the capability of induction transient Pestivirus like infection in rabbits which makes rabbits as suitable lab animal for BVDV pathogenicity and virocidal studies.

Speaker
Biography:

She has completed her Ph.D at the age of 33 years from Supreme Certification Commission of the Republic of Armenia (of Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Armenia). She is the researcher of Yerevan State University, Armenia. She has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and over 20 participations on scientific meetings.

Abstract:

The ever-increasing demand for herbal medicine requires searching for new sources of biologically active compounds. Alkanna orientalis (L.) Boiss. is known as a plant with high biological activity. A. orientalis plant callus culture was isolated, antimicrobial activity of its aqueous extracts was studied against a number of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium), Gram-positive (Bacillus mycoides, B. mesentericus, B.megaterium, B.subtilis, Brevibacterium flavum, Enterococcus hirae, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, St. citreus WT, St. roseus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. rhamnosus) bacteria and yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia guilliermondii) by the method of diffusion in the agar. A minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for callus extracts was determined against E. hirae. The extracts with different concentrations (500 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml, 125 μg/ml, 62.5 μg/ml, 31.25 μg/ml and 15.625 μg/ml) had been used. As a positive control, shikonin was used with the same concentrations, as those of the extract. According to our studies, callus extracts possessed marked bacteriostatic activity against Gram-positive bacteria and bactericidal activity - against lacto acid bacteria. MIC was corresponding to 250 μg/ml dry weight of extract in comparison with purified shikonin, which MIC was 31.25 μg/ml. Hence, A. orientalis callus tissues extracts have the rather high antimicrobial activity, which will be useful for development of new medicinal preparations as well as for food industry.

Speaker
Biography:

Mostafa El-gaffary has completed his MVSc 2010 from Cairo University and his PHD from Cairo University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. He is lecturer and director of Clinical pathology Lab in his Faculty; he was Trainer for postgraduate student on Biomedical application of Nanotechnology, Molecular biology and Immunology at Biotechnology center for research located in his Faculty2007 – 2014.

Abstract:

In this study, we evaluated in-vitro cytotoxic eff ect and antiviral properties of gold nanoparticles, which are previously r eported to possess in-vitro antiviral properties against HIV and multi strains of infl uenza virus. To investigate the antiviral activity of gold nanoparticles against cytopathic strain (NADL) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV): citrated gold nanoparticles of 7±2 nm were prepared and PEG functionalized. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of prepared gold nanoparticles did not show toxic eff ects to MDBK cells with concentration of 2 and 4 ppm. Aft erward the antiviral activity of nanoparticles was evaluated by the inhibition of the cytopathic eff ect on infected MDBK cells by means of (MTT) based colorimetric assay and was found that 4 PPM is the optimum concentration for virus inhibition. Th e results of the in- vitro antiviral activity and cytotoxicity showed that prepared gold nanoparticles has limited in-vitro toxic eff ect at concentration of 4 PPM also has strong affi nity to BVD virus and reasonable inhibitory eff ect on BVDV.

ECG Muchaneta Kubara

University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe

Title: Malnutrition, infection & disease

Time : 12:55-13:15

Speaker
Biography:

Dr ECG Muchaneta –Kubara completed her PhD as a mature student, mother wife and bread winner at Sheffield University in 1998 and has worked as a Senior Scientist in the Department of Chemical Pathology, Lecturer Immunology and Microbiology in the Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and currently Senior Lecturer in the Department of Medical Microbiology. She has over 21 International publications in reputed journals.

Abstract:

Malnutrition is the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess (too high an intake), or in the wrong proportions. A number of different nutritional disorders may rise, depending on which nutrients are under overabundant in the diet. In most of the world, malnutrition is present in the form of undernutrition, which is caused by a diet lacking adequate calories and protein. The World Health Organization cites nutrition as the greatest single threat to the world’s public health. Improving nutrition is widely regarded as the most effective form of aid. Nutrition –specific interventions, which address the immediate cause of undernutrition, have been proven to deliver among the best value for money of all development interventions. Malnutrition is responsible directly or indirectly for 54% of the 10.8 million deaths per year in children under five and contributes to every second death (53%) associated with infectious diseases among children under five years of age in developing countries. Infection causes energy loss on the part of the individual, which reduces productivity on the community level and perpetuates the alarming spiral of malnutrition, infection, disease and poverty.

Break: @ Foyer Area from 13:15-14:00
Speaker
Biography:

O.S. Bolaji started his career in 1990 at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital School of Medical Laboratory Sciences where he obtained Associate Certifi cate of Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria (AMLSCN- bacteriology option) in 1994. He proceeded to Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria and obtained in 2002 Post Graduate Diploma in Medical Laboratory Science- Microbiology option (PGDMLS), M.Sc. Medical Parasitology and Entomology in 2005 and fi nally Ph.D Medical Parasitology in 2011 from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso-Nigeria. His thesis titled ‘Molecular Epidemiology of Urinary Schistosomiasis among School children in Osun State, Nigeria’. He joined LAUTECH as an Assistant Lecturer in 2006 and is presently a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,Ogbomoso, Oyo State. He lectures Medical students (MBBS Degree), Medical Laboratory Science students (B.MLS), Nursing students (B.NSc.), PostGraduate Diploma and M.Sc. students in Medical Parasitology. He is a Lecturer, Practising Medical Laboratory Scientist and Research Scientist. He is currently on research activities ‘Genetic Diversity of Schistosoma haematobium among humans in endemic areas of Osun State’. He is presently designated as a Visiting Scholar (Scientist) to Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology for 3months.

Abstract:

Concominant parasitic infections in the developing world are increasing, yet most studies are focused on single parasite. In this study, the extent of co-infections was investigated. Three hundred consenting individuals consisting of 136 males and 164 females participated in this study. Feacal specimens and venous blood were collected from the participants. The formol-ether concentration method were used to screen the feacal samples for helminths and protozoans, while Giemsa-stained blood smears was used for malaria parasite and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by hematocrit . Demographic information from all the participants and data were analyzed using Chi-square test. The prevalence of Malaria parasite, Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba histolytica were 27.3%, 24.6%, 8.7%, 6.6%, 6.6% respectively. Females (55.0%) were generally more infected with all parasite than the males (45.1%) and it is statistically significance (p=0.000). Co-infection of parasites were observed as follows; Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricodes and Malaria parasite (2.7%), Hookworm, Entamoeba histolytica and Malaria parasite (0.7% histolytica), Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricodes, Malaria Parasite and Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Entamoeba and Ascaris lumbricodes (0.7%), Hookworm and Strongyloides stecoralis (2.0%), Ascaris lumbricodes and hookworm (3.3%), Hookworm and Malaria Parasite (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricodes and Malaria (2.7%), Entamoeba histolytica and Malaria (2.0%), Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%) and Ascaris , Strongyloides stercoralis and Malaria Parasite (0.7%). The overall Mean Packed cell Volume (PCV) of the population was 29.40±5.16 and it statistically significant (p=0.029). These result showed the existence of polyparasitism in Ajagba community and it is a major public health problem hence there is need for improved environmental condition which includes clean water supplies, periodic de-worming of children in the community should be initiated and action against deficiency in sanitary facilities, poor personal hygiene should be addressed by the government.

Speaker
Biography:

Diea Abo El-Hassan has been a professor of infectious diseases in, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University since 1987. He received his PhD in Animal infectious diseases at Cairo University, Texas A & M University and Plum Island Institute, USA in 1986, and obtained both his B.V.Sc. and M.V.Sc. degrees at Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University in 1979 and 1983 respectively. Professor of Animal Infectious diseases and Clinical laboratory diagnosis in Qassim University Saudi Arabia since 2006 - 2010, Director of Publications and Publishing Center College of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, since 2010. Currently, he is the head of Animal Internal Medicine & Infectious Diseases in Cairo University and consultant for many dairy & beef farms. He worked in many international projects in cooperation with Germany, USA and Saudi Arabia as well as other national projects.

Abstract:

Mycobacterium avium subsp. Para-tuberculosis is the etiological agent of a severe gastroenteritis in ruminants, known as Johne’s disease. Johne’s disease is prevalent in domestic animals worldwide and has significant impact on the global economy. It is considered to be one of the most serious diseases affecting cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Egypt and Arab area. Isolation of M. paratuberculosis from intestinal tissue of Crohn’s disease patients has led to concern that it may be pathogenic for humans. Thus, the pathogenic role of M. tuberculosis , early diagnosis and efficient control in animal population are topics of intense debate.

Speaker
Biography:

Husham Bayazed has completed his PhD from University of Mosul, College of Medicine. He is now Consultant at the Scientific Research Center, University of Zakho / Kurdistan Region, Iraq. He is specialist in Microbiology & Immunology and has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as scientific reviewers of many local and international medical journals. In addition he has a Fellowship of ISC, Infection, Cancer, Immunology Advisory Board Member (EUROMDnet) (Belgium), Membership of World Stroke Organization, Membership of Metabolomics (USA), and Membership of American Association of Science & Technology.

Abstract:

A case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis was diagnosed on clinical and bacteriological grounds. A fifty-five year woman presented with multiple discharging sinuses on both legs since 9 years with slowly progressive course; from rural area in Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Bacteriological study including macroscopical and cultural examination of the discharge and crust taken deep from the lesions, revealed actinomyces as the causative organism. Good response with complete healing was noticed after 4 months of treatment with benzathine penicillin. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare variety of actinomycosis and this is the first case reported in Iraq. Good awareness of the full clinical spectrum of the disease aided by bacteriological study is needed to minimize the misdiagnosis of the case.

Break: Young Researcher Forum
Speaker
Biography:

V Templier completed his engineering studies at Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Toulouse as a biochemical engineer. He is currently a PhD student in the CEA Grenoble (Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie). His research interests include biosensors with focus on pathogenic bacteria detection.

Abstract:

The presence of viable bacteria in the blood is commonly known as bacteremia. It can be a very localized and transient event with no consequences but for immunosuppressed or seriously wounded people, the most severe cases can develop into sepsis, septic shock and sometimes death. Faced with suspected bacteremia, practician is forced to use a broad spectrum antibiotic treatment while awaiting the results of microbiological analyzes of blood samples which can last 24hrs to 72hrs. Despite numerous efforts to shorten the time required for diagnosis, in most techniques the organism identification begins only after the blood culture turns positive. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent strain causing bacteremia, for this reason, its detection is a major challenge for Health issues. We propose here to carry out the microorganism identification directly from blood culture phase. To achieve this, alive bacteria are detected on an antibody based biochip without any labeling. This approach relies on a simple to operate optical technique named Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi), recently described for pathogen detection in complex samples (ground meat, milk…)1,2. Biological samples are diluted in a media specifically dedicated to this application and in accordance with the recommendations for blood cultures. Then, samples are spiked with a known amount of S. aureus and loaded on the biochip. Interactions are then recorded in real time until a positive signal appears on specific antibody due to antibody-antigen recognition. In general, a few dozen of bacteria are detected in less than ten hours in human serum. We are now focusing on the methicillin resistant strain identification (MRSA versus MSSA) through the recognition of this antibiotic resistance marker, the PBP2a protein, which is anchored at the cell surface and therefore accessible to antibodies.

Break: @ Foyer Area from 15:20-15:35
Speaker
Biography:

Ms Dana Elhadad is pursuing her PhD at Sheba Medical Center, Egypt. Her work is based on Molecular pathogenicity of S. Paratyphi A.

Abstract:

Human infection with typhoidal Salmonella serovars causes a febrile systemic disease, termed enteric fever. Here we establish that in response to a temperature equivalent to fever (39°C–42°C) Salmonella enteric serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai significantly attenuate their motility, epithelial cell invasion, and uptake by macrophages. Under these fever-like conditions, the residual epithelial cell invasion of S. paratyphi A occurs in a type III secretion system (T3SS) 1–independent manner and results in restrained disruption of epithelium integrity. The impaired motility and invasion are associated with down-regulation of T3SS-1 genes and class II and III (but not I) of the flagella-chemotaxis regulon. In contrast, we demonstrate up-regulation of particular Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 genes (especially spiC) and increased intraepithelial growth in a T3SS-2–dependent manner. These results indicate that elevated physiological temperature is a novel cue controlling virulence phenotypes in typhoidal serovars, which is likely to play a role in the distinct clinical manifestations elicited by typhoidal and non-typhoidal salmonellae.